Brodmann Area

Areas 1, 2 & 3 - Primary Somatosensory Cortex (rostral to caudal is 3, 1, 2) -Homunculus representation: legs and trunk fold over midline; arms and hands (most tissue dedicated) are along middle of strip; face (with much tissue dedicated to lips) near bottom.

Area 4 - Primary Motor Cortex - motor homunculus

Area 5 - Somatosensory Association Cortex

Area 6 - Pre-Motor and Supplementary Motor Cortex (may congtribute to planning of complex coordinated movements.)

Area 7 - Somatosensory Association Cortex (involved in locating objects in space; where vision and proprioception converge, enabling us to determine where objects are in relation to parts of the body. Generally, use in visuo-motor coordination such as in reaching to grasp an object).)

Area 8 - Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex involved in management of uncertainty (increasing uncertainty increases activation here, fMRI). Hope occurs here, a high-order expectation positively correlated with uncertainty. This area also includes frontal eye fields where conscious control of eyes is believed to take place.

Area 9 - Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - sustaining attention and working memory. Lesions cause difficulty in inhibiting responses.

Area 10 - Frontopolar area (involved in strategic processes of memory retrieval and executive function)

Area 11 - Orbitofrontal area (orbital and rectus gyri, plus part of the rostral part of the superior frontal gyrus). involved in planning, reasoning, and decision making. Perhaps the only cortical constraint of the hypothalamus.

Area 12 - Orbitofrontal area (used to be part of BA 11)

Area 13 - Insular cortex

Area 14 - Insular cortex

Area 15 - Anterior Temporal Lobe

Area 17 - Primary Visual Cortex (V1) - highly specialized for processing information about static and moving objects and is excellent in pattern recognition.

Area 18 - Secondary visual Association Cortex (V2) - bulk of the volume of the occipital lobe.

Area 19 - Tertiery visual association cortex (V3) - with area 18, involved in feature-extraction, shape recognition, and visual attention.

Area 20 - Inferior Temporal gyrus - high-level visual processes and recognition

Area 21 - Middle Temporal gyrus - auditory processing and language, notably left side

Area 22 - Superior Temporal Gyrus, includes Wernicke's area in its posterior. Left side involved in generation and understanding of words. Right side, melody, pitch, and sound intensity.

Area 23 - Ventral posterior cingulate cortex

Area 24 - Ventral anterior cingulate cortex - motivation, will

Area 25 - Subgenual cortex

Area 26 - Ectosplenial area

Area 28 - Posterior Entorhinal Cortex

Area 29 - Retrosplenial cingular cortex

Area 30 - Part of cingular cortex

Area 31 - Dorsal Posterior cingular cortex

Area 32 - Dorsal Anterior cingulate cortex

Area 34 - Anterior Entorhinal Cortex (part of parahippocampal gyrus)

Area 35 - Perirhinal cortex (part of parahippocampal gyrus)

Area 36 - Parahippocampal cortex (part of parahippocampal gyrus)

Area 37 - Fusiform gyrus

Area 38 - Temporopolar area - important area in self representation, semantic (left) and autobiographic (right)

Area 39 - Angular gyrus, part of Wernicke's area - reading, on left side grapheme-phoneme conversion; and general semantic involvement

Area 40 - Supramarginal gyrus part of Wernicke's area

Area 41 - Primary Auditory Cortex - conscious awareness of sound

Area 42 - Secondary Auditory Cortex

Area 43 - Subcentral area (between insula and post/precentral gyrus)

Area 44 - pars opercularis, part of Broca's area on left hemisphere

Area 45 - pars triangularis, part of Broca's area on left hemisphere

Area 46 - Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

Area 47 - Inferior prefrontal gyrus - involved in syntactical processing

Area 48 - Retrosubicular area (a small part of the medial surface of the temporal lobe)

Area 52 - Parainsular area (at the junction of the temporal lobe and the insula)

Activation patterns during functions, from Lloyd 2007; images (c) SKIL

We provide an inverse solution called the Brodmann Montage (tm) which is a neurogeometric solution. LORETA is apparently a geometric solution with neuroanatomical information attached after the solution is attained, instead of before.

The Magic of Biomathematics!

Note how a sinusoidal burst is found using the Brodmann montage which goes unseen or less clearly delineated in Hjorth and Spherical Harmonic montages.

Note clear sinusoidal burst localized in Broca's area

Both left and right cingulate deactivated, which is unapparent from surface EEG

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